Questions 12-22 refer to the following information.
The Other Steel City
– 1 –
12 Set on the banks of Monocacy Creek, the area that is now Bethlehem, PA, was inhabited by a rich 13 diversity of indigenous peoples. [A] By the time of that contact, the area was primarily one of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape tribe and its various divisions. 14 They traded with many settlers in the mid-Atlantic region.
– 2 –
While many groups in other regions were systematically exterminated and relegated to smaller plots of land, the Lenape 15 went on to continue to be a contributing factor to the landscape of the early region. Even after the initial European settlement on Christmas 16 Eve in 1741, the Lenape trading continued, though the written history primarily follows the progress of white settlers.
– 3 –
These settlers, a group of Moravians led by David Nitschman and Count Nicolas von Zinzendorf, called the region Bethlehem, after the birthplace of Jesus Christ. The Moravians set up missions to convert the Lenape and non-English-speaking Christians to the tenets of Moravianism, 17 a practice widely criticized for its ignorance of local traditions. [B] Although the group was relatively small and its religious influence did not reach as far as 18 other groups, the Moravians had a lasting cultural influence on the shape of the early United States. With their strong ties to Germany and musical bent, the annual Moravian Bach festival was one of the first places for people to hear the music from overseas that would become so internationally influential. [C]
– 4 –
In the twentieth century, Bethlehem became known all over for the world for something much different: steel. Bethlehem Steel was founded in 1857 amid the industrial revolution, and by the 1940s, 19 its factory was providing substantial amounts of armor and steel for troops in World War II, in addition to providing the metalwork for bridges and structures all over the country. The plant ceased operations in 1995, but its blast furnaces, those reminders of past industrial glory, 20 remains.
– 5 –
Some cities might have been laid low by the death of a major industry, but Bethlehem has emerged seemingly unscathed. Although locals know it as the “Christmas City,” for the many decorations and activities there in December, Bethlehem is also a significant culture center for the region, and its former steel mill has been repurposed to host all variety of events. [D] The contributions of Bethlehem have changed from century to century, so it should be no surprise that the twenty-first century should bring to the city something 21 no one’s ever seen the like of.
Question 22 asks about the previous passage as a whole.