Questions 12-22 refer to the following information.
Singing for Justice
In early 1939, Marian Anderson, a well-known African American singer, was invited by Howard University to come to Washington, D.C. and 12 have performed as part of the university's concert series. Because Anderson was so popular, the university attempted to hold the performance at Constitution Hall, the largest auditorium in the city, with a 13 volume of 4,000. This venue was owned by the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), an organization of female descendants of those involved in the Revolutionary War. The DAR refused to allow an African American artist to perform at the venue, 14 thrusting Anderson into the spotlight in the struggle against racial prejudice.
15 Furthermore, First Lady and DAR member Eleanor Roosevelt, who had previously invited Anderson to sing at the White 16 House resigned from the organization in protest of its refusal to host Anderson. Thousands of other DAR members followed suit, but the group did not relent. Roosevelt, along with the President and others, 17 are able to arrange for the concert to be held on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday.
18 Anderson was a modest and quiet person who valued community and wanted to bring people together. She believed that her pride and talent as a singer could eliminate prejudice. However, the change to an outdoor venue, as well as the publicity generated by the controversy, meant that Anderson would be performing for a much larger crowd than she had ever sung for before. Terrified, she even called her manager the night before, asking 19 did she really have to go through with the performance.
On the day of the concert, the crowd numbered over 75,000 and reached from the Lincoln Memorial all the way to the Washington Monument. Despite her fears, Anderson went ahead with the concert, which included a patriotic song, two classical 20 songs; and several spirituals. Her performance was highly 21 acclaimed. She was praised for her rich and beautiful voice and for her powerful stand representing all those who faced racial discrimination.
Not wanting to take attention away from Anderson, Eleanor Roosevelt chose not to be publicly affiliated with the concert and in fact did not attend it due to other obligations. However, the two remained friends throughout their lives. Anderson's performance made her an international celebrity, and she is hailed for her role in cutting down barriers for African American performers. Later, the DAR changed its rules and apologized, and Anderson did eventually perform at Constitution Hall. 22